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Wole Soyinka’s ‘Telephone Conversation’ is written in a single stanza, allowing the poets stream of consciousness to run alongside the dialogue that takes place. He uses enjambment and caesura to create speech like patterns, and includes complex language, for example “surrender pushed dumbfoundment to beg simplification. ” This use of language gives the poem an intellectual and deep insight into the thoughts of black citizens when confronted with racism. Brenda Agard’s ‘Nothing Said’ does not give us this insight, but instead tells a factual story which affected many black people in the early 80’s.

Agard uses a more typical poem structure within eight short stanzas, using rhyme to help her poem flow. Punctuation is cleverly used to break up lines within ‘Telephone conversation’ whereas little punctuation is present in ‘Nothing said’. This is perhaps because Soyinka is trying to describe the narrator’s thoughts and feelings, whereas Agard wishes her poem to have a quick pace like that of the march. Both poets use ellipses to allow pauses for affect, and both poets use a range of both lower and upper case lettering.

Agard uses this to emphasise points and heighten the reader’s incredulity, whereas Soyinka uses upper case letters in the landlady’s speech to highlight her rudeness. Each poem contains alliteration to link points and capture the reader’s attention. Repetition of the word ‘we’ is used by Agard, creating a sense of togetherness and unity within the black community. Soyinka uses a range of wording and repetition, e. g. ‘silence for spectroscopic flight of fancy, till truthfulness’, creating an erythematic effect.

The tenses, which the two poems are set in, differ greatly. Whist ‘Telephone Conversation’ is an account in the present tense, ‘Nothing Said’ comments on a protest that occurred in the past, as well as the actions the black society is going to take in the future. Each poem uses separate tones to depict their anger at racial injustice. ‘Telephone Conversation’ uses wit and humour alongside sarcasm to create a resigned attitude, using speech in the first person. ‘Nothing Said’, however, uses angry bitter tones to convey the resentment felt by many black British citizens.

Overall I think that both poems are exceedingly effectual in their methods of conveying black views on racism, but each poem presents its opinions in a completely different and proficient manner. ‘Telephone Conversation’ requires analysis before it can be fully understood, as the narrator’s feelings are hidden amidst imagery. However, once the poem is fully comprehensible it has a very clear message about racism and is extremely effective at presenting the poet’s views on colour racism. ‘Nothing Said’ appears from the outset to be the clearer of the two poems.

However it lacks detail, and unless background knowledge is known on the event the poem talks about, the full effect of the poem cannot be attained. Therefore I believe that ‘Telephone Conversation’ is the more effectual of the two poems providing a detailed view of a black Citizens opinion and leaving the reader astounded at the racism and discrimination present within society. Laura Brayne. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE John Agard: Half-Caste section.

Starting Point: Communication methods (25 minutes) Use your textbook or the resources on Student Portal or the Internet to help you research these topics.

The first one has been done for you so you can see the level of detail expected. http://www. enkivillage. com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-mobile-phones. html https://www. google. co. uk/search? q=teact+ict+advnat%5Cges+of+mobile+phones&sourceid=ie7&rls=com. microsoft:en-GB:IE-Address&ie=&oe=&surl=1&safe=active&gws_rd=ssl Method Of communication What is it? Benefits/advantages Drawbacks/disadvantages Mobile phones.

Hand-help device for making calls, texting, listen to music, surf web, email  Portable so the communication is easy Can be contacted anytime / You are always connected  There are multiply uses  Security – children feel safer as they can easily contact their parents  In emergency situations , help can be reached You can call people anywhere on the planet  No specialist equipment is needed.  Cause accidents as they are a distraction for example driving Disturb other people  Might be inference so the quality of the call can be poor.  You can’t see body language so a lot of non verbal communication is lost.

Its hard to make a record of what’s being said , things may get forgotten or misinterpreted SMS (texting) Texts are sent from one mobile phone to another. It is a quick and convenient way of sending a short message to someone . Sending messages, images, videos and sound clips between devices. Can send them at any time, day or night  Good for informal messages Good for helping friends and family keep in touch  Only short messages can be sent Needs basic typing skills Text speak spills over into written school work and formal communication.  Fast  Cheap No internet needed.

Instant Messaging (IM) A system for exchanging typed electronic messages instantly via the Internet or a cellular network, using a shared software application on a personal computer or mobile device. Conversations happen in real time .  You can add video using webcams or add a mic rather than talking . This helps show that the person you’re talking to is genuine.  Useful for customer support Internet is needed There’s no time to reflect on the message before sending  There’s a lot of ads , you have to pay extra to remove ads Anyone can send you a message Chat rooms.

An area on the Internet or other computer network where users can communicate, typically one dedicated to a particular topic.  Gives the ability to chat to more than one person at the same time Extremely useful for gamers where there are hundreds of players You can also private message people  People can fake their identity  Cyber bullying can occur Fax A system that normally uses telephone lines to send images of documents to others .  Good for places where security and legal issues are importan Fair inexpensive  Simple to use and require very little training.

As long as the machine is on , messages can be received day and night  No specialist installation/ cabling needed because it uses the existing telephone line  No immediate response  You might dial wrong number and sent important document to someone else  If the machine is busy , the fax will not be delivered. The quality is often poor and might have some of the smaller details  You need to buy ink , the machine and paper Social networking A place where people of the same interests or backgrounds can communication .  Keep in contact with old friends Free  You can make new friends.

Cyberbullying can occur Discrimination can occur People may be able to find out personal details  Its time consuming  People can easily lie about who they are  You need internet Weblogs A place where people can write down their activities on a website for others to read giving a commentary on their life . There can be photos / videos but are mainly text based.  Can easily be viewed / updated from any device that connects to the internet .  Allows you to express your thoughts  Easy to set up , little technical knowledge needed  There’s millions of blogs to read from  You can leave comments on blogs.

The problem is that a company has requested that it have a system to store the names and addresses of people it contacts through its telephone support service.

This has been requested by a company called “dataManage”, who provide computer software to individuals and also data retrieval systems. They say that they have to be able to quickly retrieve data from a database and access user’s information.

They want a system that can give the support assistant a list of people they are likely to be contacted by, and be able to modify the information about the user quickly, should it be needed. The aims of this project must be that it is:

* Easy to use and fill in forms and easy allocation of data.

* It should follow a simple design that follows through and makes it easy to read and understand.

* It should have a simple way of transferring data to the form that is to be printed, and clear instructions on what data to put in what placem

Analysis

A company called “dataManage” has contacted me. They whish to have a system made that can manage all their customers phone numbers and information about them.

To make this, I will be using just a computer and printer. The name of the item of software I will use for this project is Microsoft Access.

ICT is the best way to manage their project as it is has the ability to retrieve information quickly and easily, as well as being able to store great amounts of data in a minimal space, whilst also having the data accessed by multiple people at any one time.

The main features of the software I will be using are based around their data output capabilities.

Microsoft Access is able to process large amounts of data and its ability to use graphical outputs and to use macros and queries in using the data itself.

Tests that need to be run on the system:

Test

Result

Buttons to access different forms

Button opens the next form using a macro

Search form to scan through records easily

Used a sub-form to create this effect, it displays selected information about the record selected on the left.

Select users record from database

This one stanza poem clearly elaborates on the idea of color prejudice that is common among most of middle class society. It shows that how ever well educated and proper a black person might be, he is still not trusted by most whites. It also shows how colored people view the idea of questioning the darkness of their skin and also how the landlady, the white representative, views it. The poet starts out with an impersonal style at the beginning.

He gives us an idea about the circumstances surrounding the situation, by revealing that he is trying to rent an apartment, and has found that this one seems to have a “reasonable” price, the “location”, and the “landlady swore she lived off the premises”. He then faces another problem which he seems to have experienced before; this problem is confessing his skin color to the landlady. Since he had to tell the lady that he is colored implies that he has prefect English accent that couldn’t be differentiated from a white man’s English over the phone.

After he said his “self- confession” because he “hates a wasted journey” there was “silenced transmission of pressurized good breeding”; this quote refers to the landlady’s upper class up bringing, which is being put under pressure by the idea of allowing a colored to live on her property. When she finally answers Soyinka describes the voice as a “lip stick coated, long gold-rolled cigarette holder pipped” voice, which reveals her upper class accent and style of speaking that he hears and makes him picture her over the phone in such a way.

The poet is “caught” by the question he is asked about “how dark” he really is. The poet inverts the sentence structure to put caught at the beginning as it is more important. Still in disbelief, the poet is assured he hasn’t “misheard” as the landlady repeats the question in a slightly different form “are you light or very dark? ” He compares her question to two buttons from which he is to choose “Button B” or “Button A. ” The poet also compares the situation to a foul smelling game of hide and seek as he says, the “stench of rancid breath of public hide and speak”.

Not knowing what to say in response to her question, the poet starts to look around at the “red booth, red pillar box, red double-tiered omni-bus squelching tar. We notice that everything seems to be red except for the tar which is black. The poet then explains how he feels shame and rage for this “ill-mannered silence”, which is very ironic as the landlady is the one who should feel such shame for asking this obscene question. This reveals the politeness of the black man even though he is being questioned about his color. He also explains that although he feels a sense of “dumbfoundment” he wanted to ask for simplification.

Proving his politeness once more he says that the landlady was “considerate” in restating the question once more till finally “revelation came”. He then replies in a sort of mocking way “you mean like plain or milk chocolate”. Finally, and in answer to her question, he says “West African sepia” and certifies it by saying that it is written down in his passport. The diction he uses in the description of his color truly reveals how well educated he is. On the other hand, it is revealed that the landlady is not as well educated as she doesn’t understand and asks “what’s that?

” This is quite ironic as although he has a higher education she is pretending to be superior to him. Afterwards, she guesses that it is dark but asks him to clarify so he says that it is “not altogether” black. He then explains this as he says the palms of his hand and the soles of his feet are”peroxide blond”, and his bottom is also “raven black”. By mentioning his “bottom” Soyinka reveals the bad-breeding of the black man in contrast with that of the landlady, who chooses to hang up. Wishing she would just wait for a moment and as a final plea he asks if she wouldn’t rather see for herself?

This poem shows that although the black man has a better education the landlady seems to have the upper hand due to racial prejudice. He uses alliteration on the “s” and inversion to emphasize certain points like “considerate she was”. In this free verse poem Soyinka uses advanced diction for the black man to show his education, while he uses comparatively basic wording for the landlady to show how poor her education is. Moreover, he uses a telegrammed style to get his point across using the minimum number of words. Finally, I think this poem succeeds in showing what racist middle class women are really like.

“Wireless videophones and high-speed Internet access are a reality with the world’s first “Third Generation” mobile serviced, which were launched on October 1st 2001 by NTT DoCoMo in Tokyo, Japan. ” These has symbolized that human had enter a new era in mobile network technology. Facing with the ever advancing technologies, mobile network had integrated deep into our daily life style, cater for the needs to interact between friends and business organizations in a more effective, efficient and convenient way.

At this moment, as we are discussing, there is a lot of network companies busily preparing for 3G or the Third Generation in mobile telephone devices. The precursors to this technology had began and entered the markets in year 2001 and 3G itself is due to have proliferated in the earnest by 2005. Singapore Telco, Singtel had announced a trail on the 3G network within CBD area at the last quarter of 2003. If 3G delivers what the developers promise, by 2004 we can look at broadband speeds via our mobile phones, plus a variety of new generation mobile devices that combine PC, PDA, camera, you name it, functionality.

With 3G, data speeds will reach upwards of 2 Megabits per second (Mbps), which will give us high speed Web access and superlative quality video access via our trusty mobile communication devices. 3G also promises roaming capability throughout Europe, Asia and North America. 3G devices will deliver all that GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) can do, except a whole lot faster. Just imagine, how about catching up with that important client who never has time for a face to face meeting when he’s in a taxi on his way to an airport at the other side of the globe?

Consider watching your favourite television programmes on the MRT on your way home from work. How about consider connecting to your network, downloading files, transferring data, zipping off an email? With transfer speeds of more than 2 Mbps, tasks like these can be completed within seconds. Nokia‘s concept team, for example, are currently considering four different categories for their 3G terminals:  Communicators – These would be business tools, allowing users to quickly and efficiently log onto their networks, transfer information, wrote emails and synchronise information with conventional PC devices.

Media phones – These would perhaps give access to Internet services and include Personal Information Management, audio and data functions.  Imaging phones – Sending of photos and video clips to our friends on the other side of the world within seconds.  Entertainment phones – How about playing a game with friend at the other side of the globe. Or sending your distributor teams a video clip of your new office? To introduce, switch or implement a new technology can never be an easy task. It involved a lot of technology know how, equipments and researches. The bottom line is, a huge sum of money will be required.

Take for example, other than GPRS technology, some other technology will be required to kick off the 3G network system. One of them is WCDMA, or Wideband Code Division Multiple Access, a wideband radio technique providing high data rates, and EDGE, or Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution, a high-speed modulation technique that triples the capacity of GPRS. The various networks have spent a lot of money on this technology and will spend even more before the services are launched. In UK mobile networks have paid (22 billion just to use the required radio spectrum.

According to Gartnet Dataquest’s survey in May 2002, Singapore will spend an estimate of US$19. 9 million in 2003 and US$102. 9 million in 2004 on the WCDMA infrastructure alone. That is not all, according to reports from Europe and Japan, which had started the 3G networking, had been under a lot of criticize. Most of their problems were mainly from the handsets and the network integration. Those countries in the preparation for the 3G launch had been very cautious on the setup. Europe and Japan experience will serve as a guidance for their future operation. Introduction.

3G wireless networks are capable of transferring data at high speeds of up to 384Kbps. Average speeds for 3G network will range between 64Kbps and 384Kbps, quite a jump when compared to common wireless data speeds in the U. S that are often slower than a 14. 4Kb modem. 3G is considered high speed or broadband mobile Internet access, and as time to come, 3G networks are expected to reach speeds of more than 2Mbps. In order to know the evolution of 3G, it might be interesting to get an idea on the history on the revolution of mobile networking . History of Mobile Networking System First Generation (1G).

The first generation of mobile cellular telecommunications system appeared in the 1980s. The first generation was not the beginning of mobile communication, as there were several mobile radio networks in existence before then, but they are not cellular systems. The capacity of those early networks was much lower than that of mobile networks. And the support for mobility was weak. In mobile cellular networks the coverage area is divided into small cells, and thus the same frequencies can be used several times in the network without disturbing interference. This increase the system capacity.

The first generation used analog transmission techniques for traffic, which was almost entirely voice. There was no dominant standard but several competing ones. The most successful standards were Nordic(TACS), and Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS). Note that although the world is now busy moving into 3G networks, these first-generation networks, and many existing networks are growing. First Generation networks ( Extract from “Introduction To 3G Mobile Communication”) System Countries TACS/ETACS Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, China, Hong Kong, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Philippines.

Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, UAE, UK AMPS Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Canada, China, Georgia, Guam, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Nauru, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, USA, Vietnam, Western Samoa Second Generation (2G), 2G evolve in the year 1991, in Finland. Second generation mobile network system use digital radio transmission. Thus the boundary line between first and second generation systems is obvious: it is the analog/digital split.

The second generation networks have much higher capacity than the first generation systems. One frequency channel is simultaneously divided among several users (either by code or time division). Hierarchical cell structures- in which the service area is covered by macro and picocells – enhance the system capacity even further. There are four main standards for second-generation systems,: Global System for Mobile ( GSM ) communications and its derivatives, Digital AMPS (D-AMPS), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA {IS-95}) and Personal Digital Cellular (PDC)

GSM uses the 900-MHz band is by far the most successful and widely used 2G system. PDC was eventually adopted by Japan. Generation 2. 5 (2. 5G), 2. 5G is a designation that broadly includes all advanced upgrades for the second generation networks. These upgrades may in fact sometimes provide almost same capabilities as the planned 3G systems. The boundary line between 2G and 2. 5G is a hazy one. It is difficult to say when a 2G becomes a 2. 5G system in a technical sense. When the wireless industry realized that it was going to be costly and technologically challenging to upgrade to 3G networks, 2.

5G emerged as an interim stage. These networks transfer data at speeds of up to 114Kbps, which is faster than traditional digital (2G) network. They are always on. A phone with 2. 5G services can alternate between using nets, sending or receiving test messages, and making calls without losing its connection to the Internet and email. Analysis of 3G Technology In the old days, when all phones were fixed rather than mobile, making a call involved establishing a direct electrical connection between your handset and the one you were calling. The same happens with 2G and 2.

5G networks, but instead of setting up a dedicated circuit, a small portion of the airwaves are reserved for your call. This is a really bad way of dividing up the available airwaves because it means that the spaces and pauses in speech get the same priority as the words. 3G networks change all this. Instead of reserving airspace each conversation is chopped up into packets, each one of which is labelled with a code denoting which dialogue it is from. The ‘wireless literate generation’ of today (aged 12 – 35) provides a snapshot of tomorrow’s society and its drivers.

The new generation is creating new usage patterns in favour of messaging and visual content. For them, messaging – e. g SMS text messaging is the most natural way of personal communication. Instant communication is about being able to create and consume content (greetings, notes, snapshots/ postcards, moving pictures, instant voicemail) on the fly, and about filling transit moments with meaningful experiences. The mobile phone has become a personal trusted device that is capable of life management and enrichment, thanks to higher data rates and evolutionary user interfaces that have increased the simplicity and usability of terminals.

Traditionally the major service has been voice but there has been an evolutionary step in 3G from Short Messaging Service (SMS) to 3GPP – defined Multimedia Messaging, incorporating digital images and video clips with text or voice annotations. Industry analysts estimate that vendors are currently allocating from $200 billion in research and development resources to specify, design and manufacture infrastructure for evolving 3G networks. Of the 3G licenses currently awarded, more than 90 percent of those operators have specified WCDMA as their core 3G technology.

Observers point out that, given this expected dominance of WCDMA as the 3G standard, this technology will undoubtedly receive the majority of R&D funding and will yield the earliest, most extensive and most reliable product availability. What is WCDMA? WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiplex Access (WCDMA) is the radio frequency technology indicated for all UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication Services) networks, and WCDMA is widely expected to be the dominant technology for 3G networks worldwide. WCDMA supports high capacity, multiple simultaneous services and bit-rate performance of up to 2Mbit/s.

But as a wideband (5 MHz channels) technology, WCDMA presents deployment challenges when implemented on narrow frequency allocations. When evaluating WCDMA infrastructure, operators should consider system solutions that provide well-established Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)-compatibility and that the resource allocation capabilities follow UMTS traffic class guidelines and Quality of Service attributes, allowing operators to optimize service differentiation. Modular designs allow these solutions to scale quickly to meet escalating network traffic demands.

These same design advantages will allow these WCDMA solutions to be adapted to meet the demand for location-based services, personalized messaging and packet data traffic volumes that will define the coming wireless IP networks. These advanced WCDMA systems will also support seamless integration with GSM networks. 3G – Concepts And Technology for Business 3G will be primarily driven by services and applications, not technology, although technologies such as Java, WAP, Bluetooth, SynchML and IPv6 have enabled third party application developments to meet users’ end-to-end service needs and expectations.

The Mobile Internet will bring an explosion in the number of new applications – a 3G hypermarket of services – creating new marketing and revenue channels. Few business leaders are likely to turn down an opportunity to get an extra 10% of productivity from their mobile workforces, especially if it only costs a fraction of the reward. Third-generation (3G) wireless networks could facilitate this kind of return on investment (ROI) by extending desktop business-application, database, and intranet access into the mobile environment.

3G is an improvement over current networks, which deliver data and voice at no more than double the speed of dialup modems. The 3G infrastructure will eventually be able to transmit text, voice, video, and multimedia to a mobile handset with an always-on connection that is five times faster than a dialup modem. Initially, data-transfer rates may only equal today’s dialup modem speeds, but that is still fast enough to make wireless service attractive to businesses seeking efficiency gains.

Japan’s NTT DoCoMo turned on the world’s first 3G network in October 2001. Other mobile operators are conducting 3G trials in the United States and Europe, with plans to go live this year. The challenges include the complexity and costs of upgrading carrier networks and telephone handsets to handle 3G multimedia transmissions. Companies that adopt 3G networking for their mobile workforces within the next two years should expect limited coverage areas and the typical problems associated with any emerging technology.

IDC recommends that company executives seeking 3G wireless connectivity should decide exactly why they want the service and pinpoint the efficiency points they need in order to recoup their investment costs in less than two years. Early adopters should measure the specific benefits of connecting mobile employees-reduced paperwork, faster collection of customer data, higher accuracy-and know which group of mobile employees will get the service first and why. In Europe, if an operator does not move fast into wireless data (3G) then the market will start to move without it – threatening disintermediation for the laggards.

At such, licences of the wideband connection, which carry new content-rich data and video-streaming services, cost up to US$10 billion in Italy and $45 billion in Germany respectively. (Source : Global Telecoms Business magazine). In both Japan and Korea, there is also a significant raise in the subscription in 3G mobile usage, stimulating the economic movement in the countries. In what ways can 3G networks be applied ? Application and Advantages, Multimedia Messaging Multimedia Messaging Service, or MMS, is a messaging service for the mobile environment standardized by the WAP Forum and 3GPP.

For consumers, MMS is very similar to Short Message Service (SMS): it provides automatic, immediate delivery of user-created content sent primarily from phone to phone. MMS also provides support for email addressing, so messages can be sent to email. In addition to text, an MMS message sent to or from the Nokia 6650 phone can contain still images, voice or audio clips, and video. An MMS message is a multimedia presentation in one entity; it is not a text file with attachments.

MMS delivers a location – independent, total communication experience and is a simple, logical extension of SMS, also providing a similarly solid and reliable platform on which the operator can build additional services and increase service differentiation. Rich Call Rich call is an audio conversation supported by concurrent access to an image or data and allows users to not only ‘listen to what I say’ but also ‘see what I mean. ‘ Multiple simultaneous media types such as messaging, voice and video games can be started and ended independently but without the need to obtain the information first and then call back. Mobile Internet

Mobile Internet is not just today’s internet accessed from a mobile device (although it will of course still be possible,) but instead applications will provide users with personalised, context – dependent and interworking applications. The scope of these services will cover areas such as information, entertainment, travel and personal information management. Many will be wholly or partly sponsored by advertisers, be location – aware and have mCommerce integration. – Multimedia streaming and downloading In 3G, enhanced bandwidth capabilities and advanced terminals enable video and audio, either real – time or near real time or download.

Eg, two way video conferencing with audio, video streaming. – Streaming Media Services Audio streaming (eg MP3) is seen as the first widespread mainstream service to generate revenue through increased data traffic, attracting ‘well off, music consuming and impatient twenty to thirty – something generation’ consumers to subscribe to higher Quality of Service access. Although these services are available, to some extent, through 2. 5G terminals and networks, the bandwidth vs capacity evolution suggests that the real enabler for mass market service is WCDMA radio access.

Streaming alleviates the need for a large memory resource in the terminal since only a small sample of the video or music data resides there at any one time. Copyright is also less of an issue because at no time is the entire data stored in the device. Entertainment There are two types of entertainment – passive and interactive (games and media ie TV. ) Users will be able to connect to online multi platform gaming experiences or download, try out and purchase games. Handsets will allow inter operability though WAP, GPRS, Java and Symbian OS, making play possible across handset manufacturers.

3G Problems and Disadvantages, As we have mentioned earlier on, 3G is not flawless. Japan NTT was hit with the lack of delicated applications written for broadband speeds of 384 Kbps and handsets were designed for voice-centric application. Many people had to carry 2 handsets to ensure national coverage. Handset Problems, all the extra tasks will put something of a burden on the handset. At the moment screens on phones are small, they are difficult to type or get data into and they typically only work with one mobile phone technology.

 

Abstract

In this report I aim to determine whether or not mobile phones pose a risk to our health. I will explain how mobile phone electromagnetic radiation can be perceived as dangerous, with reference to the EM spectrum. I will cite scientific sources of evidence which support both sides of the dispute, and will come to a reasoned conclusion as to how likely it is that mobile phones are a health risk. I will also evaluate the credibility of the sources used to support my conclusions, and list all the sources used throughout in a detailed bibliography.

Introduction

Mobile phones are becoming increasingly popular in today’s world; with around 80 million handsets in Britain, there are now more mobiles than people [1]. They’ve become an essential part of our existence, in business, in our daily lives and in keeping in touch with our loved ones – however, there is growing concern that this technology is causing serious health problems throughout the population, such as lasting brain damage and cancer. The Media consistently tends to portray mobile phones negatively, fuelling the public’s fears and misgivings: this study aims to determine from the scientific evidence whether or not mobile phones present a risk to our health.

Main Points

How might Mobile Phones be Hazardous to our Health?

After studying numerous publications, I have found that if there are concerns about how mobile phones may pose a risk to the health of their users, they can be divided into two categories: The first is Electromagnetic Radiation from the phone damaging human cells and cause cancers and tumours. The second is that the EM radiation from the handset creates a heating effect.

What is EM Radiation?

EM radiation is something we are exposed to all the time: TVs, radios, satellite communications, etc all use EM waves to transmit information. Light is a form of EM radiation, as are the UV rays from the sun. The danger is that EM waves with a high frequency (UV rays, X-rays and gamma rays) are forms of ionizing radiation. This means that they have enough energy to damage cells and their DNA by stripping electrons from, or in very high energy radiation, even break apart the nucleus of atoms [2] and as such can cause genetic malfunctions which can lead to cancers.

What are the Possible Dangers of Mobile Phone EM Radiation?

Cancer-Inducing Effects of Radiation

Mobile phones use microwaves in order to transmit their information, and not UV, X or gamma rays. Microwaves are not ionizing, and so are not as dangerous as the higher frequency EM waves. However, mobile phones are still relatively new technology, and the effects of prolonged exposure to non-ionizing radiation are still unknown, as is whether prolonged exposure to the microwaves of a mobile phone handset, especially so close to the brain, will cause any serious health damage.

The Heating Effect of Radiation

When EM radiation reaches an object, the photons’ energy causes the molecules of the surface they collide with to vibrate, creating thermal energy and warming the surface they collide with slightly. We use this everyday with infrared (another EM radiation) heaters etc. The concern here is that as handsets are held so close to the brain, this heating effect could warm the sensitive brain tissues, causing permanent damage. This, as well as the concerns about the possibly cancer-inducing radiation of handsets, is thought to be more of a risk in children, who have thinner skulls and a still-developing nervous system [4].

Physiological Effects of EM Radiation

Effects of Low-Frequency (Non-Ionizing) EM Radiation In General

It is important to remember that Mobile Phones utilise Microwave radiation, a non-ionizing form of radiation, so in my research I have also looked at the effects of low-frequency EM radiation in general; not just in the application of mobile phone technology. I have frequently found that concern for children specifically is raised as a common fear, and in the course of my research discovered an interesting study published by the Institute of Physics Publishing, which explored the effects of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (i.e. those caused by EM radiation) on the foetus. The study concluded that the foetus was not exposed to electric and magnetic fields, though these fields were confirmed within the mother’s spinal chord. [5]

Cancers and Brain Tumours due to Mobile Phone Radiation?

The vast majority of recent publications agree that current evidence suggests that mobile phones (both the handsets and broadcasting/receiving masts) do not cause cancers or brain tumours – two very recent sources, one a joint-statement from the Nordic Radiation Safety Authorities, the other a Mobile Phone Fact-Sheet published by the Heath Physics Society, both agree that there is no evidence for mobile phones causing adverse health effects [6] [7]. However, the joint-statement goes on to acknowledge that the technology which uses radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation is still relatively new – only two decades old – and so active research must continue into finding out whether or not there are health dangers presented by radiofrequency radiation – this is a view agreed upon by the World Health Organization (WHO), which state the available evidence does not point towards any increased health risks attributable to mobile phone exposure, though further research and risk analysis should continue. [8]

This said, the argument for mobile phones causing brain tumours still persists: the WHO also mentions that recent studies seem to suggest an increased risk of acoustic neuroma and certain brain tumours in users of analogue mobile phones for a time period greater than 10 years – A point corroborated by a 14 months study conducted by Dr Vini Gautam Khurana. Khurana’s study concludes that “Malignant brain tumours may take several years to develop, and the incidence of malignant brain tumours is increasing.” This suggests that mobile phones may have been causing brain tumours for several years previously, but due to the development period of these tumours, the effects would only just be becoming recognizable – and indeed the number of tumours is increasing. Khurana also goes on to address the point introduced by the WHO, that “There is a growing and statistically significant body of evidence reporting that brain tumours such as vestibular Schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) and astrocytoma are associated with “heavy” and “prolonged” mobile phone use, particularly on the same side as the “preferred ear” for telephony.” [9] In addition to Dr Khurana’s study, there are many older sources of information conjecturing about the issue – but most have been either outdated or discredited since their publication.

Finally, it is worth noting that the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), one of the main bodies who set international non-ionising radiation safety limits, set these limits based only on the thermal effects (i.e. tissue heating) of mobile phone radiation [10], due to the fact that this is the only scientifically substantiated risk to humans from non-ionising radiation in large quantities – possible risks of cancer-inducement by the low-frequency radiation are not taken into account due to a lack of internationally accepted proof.

Discussion

After studying the scientific publications and evidence above, I am of the opinion that the EM radiation of mobile phones cannot cause brain tumours or cancer because of the effects of ionizing radiation, as the microwaves emitted by mobile phones are simply too low-frequency to have the energy required; however, I do agree with the views of the NRSA [6] and the WHO [8], that as the utilisation of radiofrequency EM radiation is still a relatively new technology, it cannot fully be known at present whether or not it can still pose a health risk in the form of causing tumours by some other factor, and so research must continue – until conclusive evidence is found, I believe we should adopt a precautionary approach, minimising our use of mobile phones for extended periods of time.

I think that Dr Khurana [9] raises a very interesting point about the period of time needed for tumours to develop and their increasing incidence. This seems to me a plausible explanation for the current increases in tumour incidence; however, I believe it important to acknowledge that the apparent correlation between mobile phone usage and brain tumour incidence does not necessarily represent a causal link: the increase in tumour incidence comes at a time when improvements in diagnostic techniques are constantly being made, and also at a time when the world’s population is increasing dramatically, and so the incidence of tumours could be expected to likewise rise.

Conclusion

After considering the scientific evidence on both sides of the dispute, Are mobile phones a Health Risk? I personally have come to the conclusion that mobile phones are unlikely to cause brain tumours or cancers because of the EM radiation emitted by either the handsets or their base stations. I believe this because, firstly, mobile phones use microwave radiation to transmit data, and microwave radiation does not have enough energy to be ionizing – it is my opinion that the media has demonised radiation in all forms by highlighting the dangers of ionizing radiation (e.g. Gamma rays – which have been proven to cause cancers) and from this the fears about mobile phone EM radiation have spawned. Secondly, I believe this as the overwhelming majority of recent studies have not found concrete evidence to suggest that mobile phones can cause tumours.

As to the danger of the heating effect EM radiation from mobile phones warming sensitive brain tissues and causing lasting damage, I believe that this is much more likely to present a potential health risk of mobile phones as, firstly, the scientific theory behind it seems sound to me – it is an established fact that colliding photons from EM waves imparts to the molecules of the surface collided with energy, which causes said molecules to vibrate and heat up, and secondly, in my opinion the fact that the ICRINP sets the international radiation safety levels based solely on this heating effect adds great weight to the plausibility of the argument that the heating effect of mobile phones could pose a health risk (although the EM emissions of mobile phones are well below these levels).

Overall therefore, I believe that there is some possibility that prolonged use of mobile phones (and so prolonged exposure to the heating effect of the EM radiation) could amount to a potential health risk and could cause lasting brain damage. I agree with the recommendation of the WHO to adopt a precautionary approach to mobile phone use; to only use them for extended periods of time when absolutely necessary.

Evaluation of Credibility of References

* [6] The Joint-statement from the NRSA – one of the most recent sources available, meaning that its content is highly likely to be up-to-date. The combined expertise of the NRSA greatly increases the sources reliability, as does the reputation of providing accurate and honest information that these authorities have to uphold. However, it could be argued that some vested interest may exist as mobile phone giants Nokia and Erikson are based in Finland and Sweden respectively, and so the authorities may have been trying to protect their countries’ economies in the downturn by presenting mobile phones in a positive light.

* [7] The HPS Mobile Phones Fact-sheet – this factsheet is again a very recent source, and again the HPS has a lot of expertise in matters of health-related physics; both of these factors increase the source’s credibility considerably.

* [8] The WHO – although this source is quite old, which gives scope for it being outdated, the WHO is a very reputable source looked to internationally for recommendations for policy etc. due to its wealth of expertise and independence. These three factors all increase its credibility, and in my view outweigh the age of the source (and in any case, the WHO would have updated its information if required).

* [9] Dr Khurana PhD, FRACS’s study – Dr Khurana is a highly qualified individual with great expertise in the field, and furthermore included in his study a period of over 14 months of his own research, meaning that he had a great ability to see the effects of radiation on health, both of which strengthen the source’s credibility.

Bibliography of References

* [1] Number of Mobile Phones in the UK statistic from: The Daily Mail – http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1224827/As-new-evidence-links-mobile-phones-greater-risk-tumours-using-cost-child-life.html Last Updated: 3/11/09

* [2]The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – http://www.epa.gov/rpdweb00/understand/ionize_nonionize.html Last Updated: 22/10/09

* [3] Image of EM spectrum from: The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency – http://www.arpansa.gov.au/mobilephones/mobiles1.cfm#1

* [4] Prof Kjell Mild, of Orbero University, Sweden – http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1565477/Mobile-phone-cancer-risk-higher-for-children.html Published: 8/10/07

* [5] The Institute of Physics Publishing – http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/0031-9155/52/4/001/pmb7_4_001.pdf?request-id=2266623f-5097-4aa8-a71d-fa1e83b6a0fc Published: 17/1/07

* [6] Joint-statement from the NRSA – http://www.stuk.fi/stuk/tiedotteet/fi_FI/news_578/_files/82468261251448918/default/Nordic_Statement-EMF161109.pdf Published 19/11/09

* [7] HPS Mobile Phones Fact-Sheet – http://hps.org/documents/mobiletelephonefactsheet.pdf Adopted: September 2009

* [8] WHO – http://www.euro.who.int/HEN/Syntheses/MobilePhones/20061017_10 Last Updated 13/11/06

* [9] Dr Vini Khurana’s study – http://www.brain-surgery.us/mobph.pdf Copyrighted to G.Khurana 2008

* [10] The Human Ecological Social Economical Project – http://www.hese-project.org/hese-uk/en/niemr/icnirp.php Accessed 13/12/09

* [11] Image of Ionizing Radiation from: radiation, Science and Health inc. – http://www.radscihealth.org/RSH/docs/Pollycove98_Ottawa.html

The context of this poem is of a black man from Africa trying to find accommodation, it is based on his experiences as a student in the 1960’s. The poem is written from the perspective as a phone discussion between him and a landlady.

The main problem in this poem is that there is a huge amount of racism show by the landlady to the African – ‘How dark? Are you light or very dark?’ This shows immediately that the landlady has something against coloured people and can’t have a conversation without knowing the skin colour of the man. It also seems that the landlady would prefer the man not be coloured than to rather receive money for the accommodation.

The impression we get from the landlady tells us that she is a very racist and ignorant woman. She first shows this after the man mentions he’s an Africa, which she doesn’t reply to – ‘Silence, silenced transmission of pressurised good breeding.’ The silence shows us her simple summary of her response of having to think twice about accommodating the black man. She shows that she has a sense of racism in her – ‘Considerate she was, varying the emphasis – Are you dark? Or very light?’ This tells us that the landlady is trying to imagine all the colours he could be and shows she judges people totally on colour. We also see that she is wealthy and cares about her image a lot – ‘Lipstick coated, long gold – rolled cigarette holder piped.’ From the view of the man he would think she is also a snob due to the way she is speaking to him and her questions.

When the conversation starts it begins normally but is changed completely when the man says he is African – ‘Self confession – I am African.’ This suggests that the mans skin colour is a sin which he is guilty of. He also feels that he needs to defend himself even before the woman has started to ask any questions. Then after the landlady asked him how dark he was he didn’t know how to respond to her – ‘Button A, Button B,’ this shows us that the man is shocked and confused to answer the question just asked. After the man realises that the landlady has a sense of racism in her, he begins to become angry and compares it to the environment he is in – ‘Red booth, red pillar box, red double tiered.’ The red that he is describing represents his feelings which means he is angry and the environment seems repulsive to him.

When the man says – ‘Like plain or milk chocolate’ he is talking about his skin colour and at the same time making a clever joke out of it. He is also mocking the landlady and showing her that he is not going to put up with the racist questions anymore. This shows that he is beginning to twist the conversation and is now the person who is asking the questions. He shows this when he says his colour is ‘West African Sepia’ and then asking her if she knew his skin colour. But as ‘West African Sepia’ isn’t a colour it tells us that the man is using his knowledge to make a fool of her. This makes him feel better due to the fact that he is now criticising her. Also, he feels he wants to make her feel the same way he felt when he had to answer the racist questions.

The attitude of the man changes at the end of the poem from being a polite and respectful to an angry and rude man. But he changes his attitude because of the landlady’s judgement of him and decided to show his angry and rage to show that he is not a weak person. The man is now making fun of her and is mocking her at more length when he speaks about his colour – ‘Don’t you know what it is? That’s dark, isn’t it?’ He then starts to be rude by offering to show his bottom under the pretence of suggesting she meets him before judging – ‘My bottom raven black, wouldn’t you rather see for yourself.’ He does this to make her feel uncomfortable as he was before and tried to put her in a complicated position.

The control of power in the beginning of this poem was in the hands of the landlady as she owns the house and is offering the accommodation to the man. As the poem continues her power begins to decrease as the man reverses the situation as he starts to mock her. By the end of the poem the man has gained all the power from the landlady and is so powerful the landlady talks but only when she is asked a question.

I think the poet wrote this to show that people who seem to be weak like the African man could be clever enough to gain power. Also, people who are foreign to a country still believe they have rights to fight back to unpleasant comments.

You Will Be Hearing From Us Shortly

The context of this poem is based on an interview for a position at a company. The interview includes the ‘interviewer’ and ‘interviewees’. The poem is written from the perspective of the interviewer asking questions to the candidates.

The main problem in this situation is that there is a sense of prejudice shown by the interviewer to the candidates. Also, the candidates are not being treated fair to even be considered the position at the company. Another problem is that in the poem people are judged on looks and appearance instead of their knowledge and potential.

The impression we get from the interviewer is that she wants the interviewee to know that she is in charge and is the only person asking the questions. This is shown in the first stanza when she immediately asks her questions, which shows she has a much more superior attitude than the interviewees – ‘You feel adequate to the demands of this position’. This shows from the start-off that the interviewer is in control and doesn’t show any manners to wait for a response but instead asks the next question.

The character of the interviewer develops into being rude and also she doesn’t pay attention to the interviewee’s emotions or feelings. She shows that she is rude when she questions their looks and abilities – ‘Find your appearance, disturbing?’ She also is more direct in asking questions and doesn’t hesitate of their reaction this is show hen she questions their accent – ‘And your accent that is the way you have always spoken, is it?’ This gives us the impression that she is insulting the speech of the interviewee.

The poet makes us think that the candidate is really weak and doesn’t show any sign of defending herself. Also, whenever the interviewer finishes asking a question she also replies for the candidates – ‘So glad we agree, Quite so.’ This shows that they are so powerless they can’t be able to answer for themselves. It also shows us that the interviewees seem that they don’t care about receiving criticism and do not have the power to stand up and respond.

The character of the candidate develops into being more weaker than she is already. She receives more and more criticism from the interviewer and never has the chance to respond due to the interviewers power – ‘What of your education? Where were you educated?’ This shows the interviewer is now not even giving the courtesy of a response and instead goes straight onto the next question, showing the interviewee’s lack of importance to her.

The control of power in this poem was in the hands of the interviewer in the beginning. As the poem continues her power gets stronger and stronger and becomes so strong that at a point you’d forget that the candidates are even present. By the end of the poem the interviewer still has all the power possible in the interview and uses it to great effect against the interviewees.

I think the poets reasons for writing this poem is to show people that a person who is in a powerful enough position to make judgements of people can have even more power by showing it and using it to their advantage.

“Wireless videophones and high-speed Internet access are a reality with the world’s first “Third Generation” mobile serviced, which were launched on October 1st 2001 by NTT DoCoMo in Tokyo, Japan.”

These has symbolized that human had enter a new era in mobile network technology. Facing with the ever advancing technologies, mobile network had integrated deep into our daily life style, cater for the needs to interact between friends and business organizations in a more effective, efficient and convenient way. At this moment, as we are discussing, there is a lot of network companies busily preparing for 3G or the Third Generation in mobile telephone devices. The precursors to this technology had began and entered the markets in year 2001 and 3G itself is due to have proliferated in the earnest by 2005. Singapore Telco, Singtel had announced a trail on the 3G network within CBD area at the last quarter of 2003.

If 3G delivers what the developers promise, by 2004 we can look at broadband speeds via our mobile phones, plus a variety of new generation mobile devices that combine PC, PDA, camera, you name it, functionality.

With 3G, data speeds will reach upwards of 2 Megabits per second (Mbps), which will give us high speed Web access and superlative quality video access via our trusty mobile communication devices. 3G also promises roaming capability throughout Europe, Asia and North America.

3G devices will deliver all that GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) can do, except a whole lot faster. Just imagine, how about catching up with that important client who never has time for a face to face meeting when he’s in a taxi on his way to an airport at the other side of the globe? Consider watching your favourite television programmes on the MRT on your way home from work. How about consider connecting to your network, downloading files, transferring data, zipping off an email? With transfer speeds of more than 2 Mbps, tasks like these can be completed within seconds.

Nokia‘s concept team, for example, are currently considering four different categories for their 3G terminals:

* Communicators – These would be business tools, allowing users to quickly and efficiently log onto their networks, transfer information, wrote emails and synchronise information with conventional PC devices.

* Media phones – These would perhaps give access to Internet services and include Personal Information Management, audio and data functions.

* Imaging phones – Sending of photos and video clips to our friends on the other side of the world within seconds.

* Entertainment phones – How about playing a game with friend at the other side of the globe. Or sending your distributor teams a video clip of your new office?

To introduce, switch or implement a new technology can never be an easy task. It involved a lot of technology know how, equipments and researches. The bottom line is, a huge sum of money will be required.

Take for example, other than GPRS technology, some other technology will be required to kick off the 3G network system. One of them is WCDMA, or Wideband Code Division Multiple Access, a wideband radio technique providing high data rates, and EDGE, or Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution, a high-speed modulation technique that triples the capacity of GPRS.

The various networks have spent a lot of money on this technology and will spend even more before the services are launched. In UK mobile networks have paid (22 billion just to use the required radio spectrum. According to Gartnet Dataquest’s survey in May 2002, Singapore will spend an estimate of US$19.9 million in 2003 and US$102.9 million in 2004 on the WCDMA infrastructure alone.

That is not all, according to reports from Europe and Japan, which had started the 3G networking, had been under a lot of criticize. Most of their problems were mainly from the handsets and the network integration.

Those countries in the preparation for the 3G launch had been very cautious on the setup. Europe and Japan experience will serve as a guidance for their future operation.

Introduction

3G wireless networks are capable of transferring data at high speeds of up to 384Kbps. Average speeds for 3G network will range between 64Kbps and 384Kbps, quite a jump when compared to common wireless data speeds in the U.S that are often slower than a 14.4Kb modem. 3G is considered high speed or broadband mobile Internet access, and as time to come, 3G networks are expected to reach speeds of more than 2Mbps.

In order to know the evolution of 3G, it might be interesting to get an idea on the history on the revolution of mobile networking .

History of Mobile Networking System

First Generation (1G),

The first generation of mobile cellular telecommunications system appeared in the 1980s. The first generation was not the beginning of mobile communication, as there were several mobile radio networks in existence before then, but they are not cellular systems. The capacity of those early networks was much lower than that of mobile networks. And the support for mobility was weak.

In mobile cellular networks the coverage area is divided into small cells, and thus the same frequencies can be used several times in the network without disturbing interference. This increase the system capacity. The first generation used analog transmission techniques for traffic, which was almost entirely voice. There was no dominant standard but several competing ones. The most successful standards were Nordic(TACS), and Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS).

Note that although the world is now busy moving into 3G networks, these first-generation networks, and many existing networks are growing.

First Generation networks ( Extract from “Introduction To 3G Mobile Communication”)

System Countries

TACS/ETACS Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, China, Hong Kong, Ireland,

Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Philippines,

Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, UAE, UK

AMPS Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Brunei, Burma,

Cambodia, Canada, China, Georgia, Guam, Hong Kong,

Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia,

Nauru, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea,

Philippines, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka,

Tajikistan, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, USA,

Vietnam, Western Samoa

Second Generation (2G),

2G evolve in the year 1991, in Finland. Second generation mobile network system use digital radio transmission. Thus the boundary line between first and second generation systems is obvious: it is the analog/digital split. The second generation networks have much higher capacity than the first generation systems. One frequency channel is simultaneously divided among several users (either by code or time division). Hierarchical cell structures- in which the service area is covered by macro and picocells – enhance the system capacity even further.

There are four main standards for second-generation systems,: Global System for Mobile ( GSM ) communications and its derivatives, Digital AMPS (D-AMPS), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA {IS-95}) and Personal Digital Cellular (PDC)

GSM uses the 900-MHz band is by far the most successful and widely used 2G system. PDC was eventually adopted by Japan.

Generation 2.5 (2.5G),

2.5G is a designation that broadly includes all advanced upgrades for the second generation networks. These upgrades may in fact sometimes provide almost same capabilities as the planned 3G systems. The boundary line between 2G and 2.5G is a hazy one. It is difficult to say when a 2G becomes a 2.5G system in a technical sense.

When the wireless industry realized that it was going to be costly and technologically challenging to upgrade to 3G networks, 2.5G emerged as an interim stage. These networks transfer data at speeds of up to 114Kbps, which is faster than traditional digital (2G) network. They are always on. A phone with 2.5G services can alternate between using nets, sending or receiving test messages, and making calls without losing its connection to the Internet and email.

Analysis of 3G Technology

In the old days, when all phones were fixed rather than mobile, making a call involved establishing a direct electrical connection between your handset and the one you were calling.

The same happens with 2G and 2.5G networks, but instead of setting up a dedicated circuit, a small portion of the airwaves are reserved for your call. This is a really bad way of dividing up the available airwaves because it means that the spaces and pauses in speech get the same priority as the words.

3G networks change all this. Instead of reserving airspace each conversation is chopped up into packets, each one of which is labelled with a code denoting which dialogue it is from.

The ‘wireless literate generation’ of today (aged 12 – 35) provides a snapshot of tomorrow’s society and its drivers. The new generation is creating new usage patterns in favour of messaging and visual content. For them, messaging – e.g SMS text messaging is the most natural way of personal communication. Instant communication is about being able to create and consume content (greetings, notes, snapshots/ postcards, moving pictures, instant voicemail) on the fly, and about filling transit moments with meaningful experiences. The mobile phone has become a personal trusted device that is capable of life management and enrichment, thanks to higher data rates and evolutionary user interfaces that have increased the simplicity and usability of terminals. Traditionally the major service has been voice but there has been an evolutionary step in 3G from Short Messaging Service (SMS) to 3GPP – defined Multimedia Messaging, incorporating digital images and video clips with text or voice annotations.

Industry analysts estimate that vendors are currently allocating from $200 billion in research and development resources to specify, design and manufacture infrastructure for evolving 3G networks. Of the 3G licenses currently awarded, more than 90 percent of those operators have specified WCDMA as their core 3G technology. Observers point out that, given this expected dominance of WCDMA as the 3G standard, this technology will undoubtedly receive the majority of R&D funding and will yield the earliest, most extensive and most reliable product availability.

What is WCDMA?

WCDMA

Wideband Code Division Multiplex Access (WCDMA) is the radio frequency technology indicated for all UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication Services) networks, and WCDMA is widely expected to be the dominant technology for 3G networks worldwide. WCDMA supports high capacity, multiple simultaneous services and bit-rate performance of up to 2Mbit/s. But as a wideband (5 MHz channels) technology, WCDMA presents deployment challenges when implemented on narrow frequency allocations.

When evaluating WCDMA infrastructure, operators should consider system solutions that provide well-established Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)-compatibility and that the resource allocation capabilities follow UMTS traffic class guidelines and Quality of Service attributes, allowing operators to optimize service differentiation.

Modular designs allow these solutions to scale quickly to meet escalating network traffic demands. These same design advantages will allow these WCDMA solutions to be adapted to meet the demand for location-based services, personalized messaging and packet data traffic volumes that will define the coming wireless IP networks. These advanced WCDMA systems will also support seamless integration with GSM networks.

3G – Concepts And Technology for Business

3G will be primarily driven by services and applications, not technology, although technologies such as Java, WAP, Bluetooth, SynchML and IPv6 have enabled third party application developments to meet users’ end-to-end service needs and expectations. The Mobile Internet will bring an explosion in the number of new applications – a 3G hypermarket of services – creating new marketing and revenue channels.

Few business leaders are likely to turn down an opportunity to get an extra 10% of productivity from their mobile workforces, especially if it only costs a fraction of the reward. Third-generation (3G) wireless networks could facilitate this kind of return on investment (ROI) by extending desktop business-application, database, and intranet access into the mobile environment.

3G is an improvement over current networks, which deliver data and voice at no more than double the speed of dialup modems. The 3G infrastructure will eventually be able to transmit text, voice, video, and multimedia to a mobile handset with an always-on connection that is five times faster than a dialup modem. Initially, data-transfer rates may only equal today’s dialup modem speeds, but that is still fast enough to make wireless service attractive to businesses seeking efficiency gains.

Japan’s NTT DoCoMo turned on the world’s first 3G network in October 2001. Other mobile operators are conducting 3G trials in the United States and Europe, with plans to go live this year. The challenges include the complexity and costs of upgrading carrier networks and telephone handsets to handle 3G multimedia transmissions.

Companies that adopt 3G networking for their mobile workforces within the next two years should expect limited coverage areas and the typical problems associated with any emerging technology. IDC recommends that company executives seeking 3G wireless connectivity should decide exactly why they want the service and pinpoint the efficiency points they need in order to recoup their investment costs in less than two years. Early adopters should measure the specific benefits of connecting mobile employees-reduced paperwork, faster collection of customer data, higher accuracy-and know which group of mobile employees will get the service first and why.

In Europe, if an operator does not move fast into wireless data (3G) then the market will start to move without it – threatening disintermediation for the laggards. At such, licences of the wideband connection, which carry new content-rich data and video-streaming services, cost up to US$10 billion in Italy and $45 billion in Germany respectively.(Source : Global Telecoms Business magazine).

In both Japan and Korea, there is also a significant raise in the subscription in 3G mobile usage, stimulating the economic movement in the countries.

In what ways can 3G networks be applied ?

Application and Advantages,

Multimedia Messaging

Multimedia Messaging Service, or MMS, is a messaging service for the mobile environment standardized by the WAP Forum and 3GPP. For consumers, MMS is very similar to Short Message Service (SMS): it provides automatic, immediate delivery of user-created content sent primarily from phone to phone.

MMS also provides support for email addressing, so messages can be sent to email. In addition to text, an MMS message sent to or from the Nokia 6650 phone can contain still images, voice or audio clips, and video. An MMS message is a multimedia presentation in one entity; it is not a text file with attachments. MMS delivers a location – independent, total communication experience and is a simple, logical extension of SMS, also providing a similarly solid and reliable platform on which the operator can build additional services and increase service differentiation.

Rich Call

Rich call is an audio conversation supported by concurrent access to an image or data and allows users to not only ‘listen to what I say’ but also ‘see what I mean.’ Multiple simultaneous media types such as messaging, voice and video games can be started and ended independently but without the need to obtain the information first and then call back.

Mobile Internet

Mobile Internet is not just today’s internet accessed from a mobile device (although it will of course still be possible,) but instead applications will provide users with personalised, context – dependent and interworking applications. The scope of these services will cover areas such as information, entertainment, travel and personal information management. Many will be wholly or partly sponsored by advertisers, be location – aware and have mCommerce integration.

– Multimedia streaming and downloading

In 3G, enhanced bandwidth capabilities and advanced terminals enable video and audio, either real – time or near real time or download. Eg, two way video conferencing with audio, video streaming.

– Streaming Media Services

Audio streaming (eg MP3) is seen as the first widespread mainstream service to generate revenue through increased data traffic, attracting ‘well off, music consuming and impatient twenty to thirty – something generation’ consumers to subscribe to higher Quality of Service access. Although these services are available, to some extent, through 2.5G terminals and networks, the bandwidth vs capacity evolution suggests that the real enabler for mass market service is WCDMA radio access.

Streaming alleviates the need for a large memory resource in the terminal since only a small sample of the video or music data resides there at any one time. Copyright is also less of an issue because at no time is the entire data stored in the device.

Entertainment

There are two types of entertainment – passive and interactive (games and media ie TV.) Users will be able to connect to online multi platform gaming experiences or download, try out and purchase games. Handsets will allow inter operability though WAP, GPRS, Java and Symbian OS, making play possible across handset manufacturers.

3G Problems and Disadvantages,

As we have mentioned earlier on, 3G is not flawless. Japan NTT was hit with the lack of delicated applications written for broadband speeds of 384 Kbps and handsets were designed for voice-centric application. Many people had to carry 2 handsets to ensure national coverage.

Handset Problems, all the extra tasks will put something of a burden on the handset. At the moment screens on phones are small, they are difficult to type or get data into and they typically only work with one mobile phone technology. Third-generation networks might require bigger screens, especially if you download video clips, better ways to move data in and out of them, and bigger memories if you want to carry your MP3 files with you. The handsets themselves are likely to get slightly bigger to hold batteries to support these new uses and to include chipsets for existing mobile networks as well as the new ones.

In Singapore, the three 3G licence holders, namely Singtel Mobile, Starhub Mobile and MobileOne(M1), are bound by regulation with Infocomm Development Anthority (IDA) to complete their WCDMA rollout by Dec 31, 2004. If they did not comply, a fine of S$1.0million will be imposed. But according to vice-president of StarHub Mobile, “Although European countries have rolled out 3G, there has been much instability and even consolidation in the European 3G WCDMA market.” Pointing to the lack of 3G success stories across the world as a reason for caution. ” The risks in investing in 3G technology is still high!”. In addition, senior analyst of Mobile Communication,Gartner, also worry and concern that there is no clear and compelling business case to justify the upfront capital expenditure. Explaining that ” The technology is not yet mature and its complexity has been somewhat underestimated”

Generally, there is an uncertainty as to when the upfront investment on the infrastructure can be recovered.

M-Commerce

According to Durlacher Research, M- Commerce is defined as “any transaction with a monetary value that is conducted via a mobile telecommunications networks” (Durlacher 2000). A somewhat looser approach would be to characterize M-Commerce as the emerging set of applications and services people can access from theie Internet-enabled mobile commerce.

Mobile Commerce will not only be an extension of E-Business but will also adds consumer value through personalisation, mobility, availability and ease of use due to its ability to be instantly implemented. Ease of use, trustworthiness and consistency have been the main reasons for establishing the Mobile Electronic Transaction (MeT) initiative, which has created a framework for handling secure mobile electronic transactions via a mobile device whilst ensuring a consistent user experience independent of device, service and network. The object of the MeT initiative is to combat the challenges of keeping these facilities convenient and easy to use, a solution developed through evolving WAP with WAP Identity Module(WIM), Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) and Wireless Public Key Infrastructure (W-PKI).

Above all. M-Commerce is about content and giving users access to a myriad of mobile services. Contents can range from news to directory services, directions, shopping and ticketing services, entertainment services, financial services and so forth. Possible sources of revenue include subscription fees, transaction fees, share of traffic charges collected by mobile operator, and various forms of sponsorship such as advertising, referral fees, and commissions. They can be combined in a number of different ways. However, one can generally distinguish between the following core business models:

* User Fee Business Models – charge users for the content they access.

1. Subscription Fees

2. Usage Fees

* Shopping Business Modes – similar to e-shopping. Using the mobile internet offers those selling companies an opportunity to reach a somewhat different audience.

* Marketing Business Models – mobile marketing is knowing your customer and leveraging that knowledge to deliver highly relevant messages; namely, messages that reflect their personal preferences as well as possibly their locations or other contextual attributes.

* Improved Efficiency Models – mobile Internet can cuts costs and improve customer satisfaction. It help make the company’s operation less human intensive, while offering customers the added convenience of anywhere, anytime access to a number of banking, trading and shopping services.

* Advertising Business Models – mobile advertising can present the users with ads that are directly relevant to queries they enter – when the user is looking for a place to eat, present him or her with coupons for nearby restaurants. Different types of incentives can help make users more receptive to promotional messages.

* Revenue-Sharing Business Models – generally involves collecting payment from the users and redistributing it across the different parties involve in delivering the services.

In Japan 3G had further enhance i-Mode in M-Commerce, i-Mode was able to ramp up from 0 to 30 million customers in less than 3 years. It suggests that when all the right ingredients are in place, M-Commerce can gain rapid acceptance.

Recommendation

Technology professionals nationwide have been buzzing about the advent of 3G, or third-generation, wireless technology. While 3G is a genuine technological breakthrough and certain to change the way business communicates, there is nothing mysterious about it.

3G is simply a faster, richer extension of existing wireless technology. Today, nearly 133 million Americans depend on a wireless phone and, according to research by Cahners In-Stat Group, an estimated 1.5 billion wireless-enabled phones, handheld computers and other devices will be in use globally by 2004. Wireless technology began with analog signals (first-generation) and advanced to digital (second-generation), the current standard.

3G is essentially the wireless industry’s version of broadband Internet services, offering faster speeds and more mobile applications. Faster speeds enable enhanced messaging, e-mail with attachments, enriched gaming, video and audio clips, high-speed Internet browsing and digital imaging. These are common applications in the wired desktop world. In short, 3G allows people to take more of their personal technology and business tools with them when they’re away from home or the office.

Many have questioned the market for 3G wireless services, and it’s a valid question. It will be incumbent on wireless carriers to prove new devices and applications are worth the extra money. There will be a strong return on investment for 3G. There is tremendous value in simply extending existing desktop business applications, such as e-mail, intranets and customer account information, to the wireless world.

But 3G is much more than mobile e-mail. The introduction of digital imaging will allow “on-location” professionals, such as insurance adjusters and Realtors, to do their jobs faster and more efficiently. Imagine the sales advantage for a Realtor who is able to show a home buyer photos of a potential dream home the moment it goes on the market. Or for an insurance adjuster who can transmit photos of an accident to the home office to secure a settlement in minutes. Other new applications will use global positioning system (GPS) chips to support location-based services, making it possible to identify the location of a cell phone when it is turned on. Businesses will be able to use this technology to track their fleets and personnel, thereby boosting efficiency.

Imagine a situation where you are about to make an important Sales Presentation. You realize that you have brought the wrong presentation slides and you call up your colleague. She immediately emails the file to your 3G terminal and you transfer it to your laptop. Another scenario is having video-conferencing and sending character-based messages simultaneously with your clients.

These scenarios are possible with the availability of 3G technology. But what is 3G technology and how will it revolutionise current HR and commercial practices?

A relook at Workplace Dynamics

The WearTel (TM) phone, for example, uses EyeTap technology to allow individuals to see each other’s point of view. Therefore, the miniature laser light source inside the WearTel eyeglass-based phone scans across the retinas of both parties and swaps the image information, so that each person sees what the other person is looking at.

This technology will enable the HR manager to have a better understanding of how to motivate and reward their employees as personal documentaries of their work-life will be shot from a first-person perspective. HR managers can provide better advice about handling difficult customers or closing sales. However, the immediate benefit is that this technology can be used as a training tool. The reason is that privacy laws have to be reviewed and updated in order that customers are adequately informed of this technology.

Mobile Job Interview

With an attached camera in a mobile device, job interviews can be conducted as video-conferencing between the HR manager and the potential job applicant. Initially, the job candidate can answer basic questions like his highest qualification and salary expectation by pressing the key-pad of the mobile device. If successful, he can proceed to have a face-to-face interview.

Mobile Advertising

3G technology will enable advertisers to send more sophisticated and customized permission-based advertisements to their target audience’s mobile devices. This will be an improvement from the current SMS. There will be a convergence between the internet and wireless technology as the target audience can request that more product information be sent as email. It is unlikely that these services will provide a sustainable advantage over the long run but they will shape the brand perception of an operator at the initial stage of the introduction of wireless Internet services. However, with the rise of m-commerce, ‘business-webs ‘will become even more powerful as every customer will become linked into the web.

Mobile Health Care

3G solution can help doctors and nurses remotely access and update patient records. In emergency situation, the doctor can even use the video function on 3G mobile system to observe the patient’s situation while the patient is at home and give guidance to the patients family member prior arrival to the hospital. Here we can see, it will improve productivity, reduce administrative overhead and enhance overall service quality.

This will enable business customers to enhance productivity, improve customer service and otherwise create a competitive advantage. Customers will initially access 3G networks using laptops with a modem card, PDAs such as the Palm Pilot and devices that look like a wireless phone, but offer a greater range of features. The Palm-type device is an obvious choice for customers who want to consolidate their information in a single device. The laptop and modem card solution makes sense to business travelers who spend time in an airport.

Regardless of changing technology trends, wireless is here to stay, and 3G represents the next “great leap forward” in its development

Conclusion

Competitive advantage in 3G will come from the ability to recognize that mobility and location-based information are critical for success. There will be millions of users making billions of transactions every day, from real time video to checking horoscopes and weather information.

The mobile phone is already part of everyday life with penetration rates rising to 70 per cent and more in many countries, and their appeal will grow, driven by the way consumers construct their own identity. 3G products and services will facilitate and support existing lifestyles and routines, with diversity, personal choice, a balanced efficiency and enjoyment. Nokia sees the largest initial demand for 3G as a highly integrated dual-mode terminal capable of supporting the Mobile Internet, new and existing applications, advanced IP-based services, Multimedia Messaging, Multi-mode radio and open standards and is at the forefront of developing 3G technology.

Scheme 1: A payment of 15 per month for the line rental, plus 50p per minute for each call made Scheme 2: A payment of 24 per month for the line rental, plus 20p per minute for each call made Scheme 3: A payment of  31 per month for the line rental, plus 10p per minute for each call made. I am going to investigate which scheme is best for people using mobile phones. I will also vary the line rental, vary the cost of each call, make comparisons, and make generalisations. I will show graphs, tables and a conclusion to my investigation.

Scheme 1: A payment of  15 per month for the line rental, plus 50p per minute for each call made. My conclusion to my investigation is that all 3 schemes are cheap in there own way. Scheme 1 is good for people who like to make the odd call for a very short period of time in a month. Scheme 2 is good for people who maybe are more likely to use there mobiles more often but not for long in a month. Scheme 3 is good for people who want to and need to use it frequently and make long periods of calls per month.

So there is no real best scheme for people to use, it depends on who the person is and how often and long they will use the mobile phone in a month. The 3 schemes could be used for a family who has 4 members. Scheme 1 would be ideal for there kids who would just need it for the quick call to get picked up from school, scheme 2 would maybe suite the mother because she would want it to keep in contact with her kids and her husband, and scheme 3 mite benefit the husband who could use it for keeping in contact with his family and also to use it for clients at work.

cell phone” redirects here. For the film, see Cell Phone (film). For the Handphone film, see Handphone (film).

The Qualcomm QCP-2700, a mid-1990s candybar style phone, and an iPhone 5, a current production smartphone. A mobile phone is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over aradio link while moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the short range of a single, private base station. In addition to telephony, modern mobile phones also support a wide variety of other services such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications, business applications, gaming and photography.

Mobile phones that offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones. The first hand-held mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell[1][2][3] and Dr Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing around 2.2 pounds (1 kg).[4] In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first to be commercially available. From 1990 to 2011, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew from 12.4 million to over 6 billion, penetrating about 87% of the global population and reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid. ————————————————-

History
Main article: History of mobile phones

An evolution of mobile phones

Before the devices that are now referred to as mobile phones existed, there were some precursors. The development of mobile telephony began in 1918 with tests of wireless telephony on military trains between Berlin – Zossen.[9] In 1924 public trials started with telephone connection on trains between Berlin – Hamburg.[9] In 1925 Zugtelephonie A. G. is founded to supply train telephony equipment[9] and in 1926 telephone service in trains of theDeutsche Reichsbahn and imperial post on the route between Hamburg and Berlin is approved and used.[9] This phone service was only offered to 1st class travelers, but in 1918, some 5 years after the invention of Meissnerischen tube based transmitters, the German Reichsbahn in Berlin led experiments with telephony via radio. [10] The first mobile telephone calls were made from automobiles in 1946.

The Bell System’s – Mobile Telephone Service – inaugural call was made on 17 June of that year in St. Louis, Missouri, followed by Illinois Bell Telephone Company’s car radiotelephone service in Chicago on 2 October. [11] The MTS phones were composed of vacuum tubes and relays, and weighed over 80 pounds (36 kg).[12][13] There were initially only 3 channels for all the users in the metropolitan area, increasing later to 32 channels across 3 bands. This service continued into the 1980s in large portions of North America. Due to the small number of radio frequencies available, the service quickly reached capacity. In 1956, the world’s first partly automatic car phone system, Mobile System A (MTA), was introduced in Sweden. John F. Mitchell, Motorola’s chief of portable communication products in 1973, played a key role in advancing the development of handheld mobile telephone equipment.

Mitchell successfully pushed Motorola to develop wireless communication products that would be small enough to use anywhere and participated in the design of the cellular phone.[14][15] Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive, was the key researcher on Mitchell’steam that developed the first hand-held mobile telephone for use on a cellular network.[16] Using a somewhat heavy portable handset, Cooper made the first call on a handheld mobile phone on 3 April 1973 to his rival, Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs.[17][18] As I walked down the street while talking on the phone, sophisticated New Yorkers gaped at the sight of someone actually moving around while making a phone call. Remember that in 1973, there weren’t cordless telephones or cellular phones. I made numerous calls, including one where I crossed the street while talking to a New York radio reporter – probably one of the more dangerous things I have ever done in my life. —Martin Cooper, [19]

The new invention sold for $3,995 and weighed two pounds, leading to the nickname “the brick”. The world’s first commercial automated cellular network was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979, initially in the metropolitan area of Tokyo. In 1981, this was followed by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.[20] Several countries then followed in the early to mid-1980s including the UK, Mexico and Canada. On 6 March 1983, the DynaTAc mobile phone launched on the first US 1G network by Ameritech. It cost $100m to develop, and took over a decade to reach the market.[21]

The phone had a talk time of just half an hour and took ten hours to charge. Consumer demand was strong despite the battery life, weight, and low talk time, and waiting lists were in the thousands.[22][23] In 1991, the second generation (2G) cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard, which sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators. Ten years later, in 2001, the third generation (3G) was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard.[24]

This was followed by 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on thehigh-speed packet access (HSPA) family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications like streaming media.[25] Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized 4th-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to 10-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard (offered in the U.S. by Sprint) and the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera. ————————————————-

Read more: Uses and Abuses of Mobile Phone Essay

Features
Main article: Mobile phone features
See also: Smartphone

A printed circuit board inside a Nokia 3210

All mobile phones have a number of features in common, but manufacturers also try to differentiate their own products by implementing additional functions to make them more attractive to consumers. This has led to great innovation in mobile phone development over the past 20 years. The common components found on all phones are:

* A battery, providing the power source for the phone functions. * An input mechanism to allow the user to interact with the phone. The most common input mechanism is a keypad, but touch screens are also found in some high-end smartphones. * Basic mobile phone services to allow users to make calls and send text messages. * All GSM phones use a SIM card to allow an account to be swapped among devices.

Some CDMA devices also have a similar card called a R-UIM. Individual GSM, WCDMA, iDEN and some satellite phone devices are uniquely identified by an International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number. Low-end mobile phones are often referred to as feature phones, and offer basic telephony. Handsets with more advanced computing ability through the use of native software applications became known as smartphones. Several phone series have been introduced to address a given market segment, such as the RIM BlackBerry focusing on enterprise/corporate customer email needs; the Sony-Ericsson ‘Walkman’ series of music/phones and ‘Cybershot’ series of camera/phones; the Nokia Nseries of multimedia phones, the Palm Pre the HTC Dream and the Apple iPhone. Text messaging

Main article: SMS

The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging. The first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK, while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993. The first mobile news service, delivered via SMS, was launched in Finland in 2000, and subsequently many organizations provided “on-demand” and “instant” news services by SMS. SIM card

Main articles: Subscriber Identity Module and Removable User Identity Module

Typical mobile phone SIM card

GSM feature phones require a small microchip called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM Card, to function. The SIM card is approximately the size of a small postage stamp and is usually placed underneath the battery in the rear of the unit. The SIM securely stores the service-subscriber key (IMSI) and the Ki used to identify and authenticate the user of the mobile phone. The SIM card allows users to change phones by simply removing the SIM card from one mobile phone and inserting it into another mobile phone or broadband telephony device. The first SIM card was made in 1991 by Munich smart card maker Giesecke & Devrient for the Finnish wireless network operatorRadiolinja.[citation needed] In general

Mobile phone subscribers per 100 inhabitants 1997–2007

A cellphone repair kiosk in Mumbai, India

Mobile phones are used for a variety of purposes, including keeping in touch with family members, conducting business, and having access to a telephone in the event of an emergency. Some people carry more than one cell phone for different purposes, such as for business and personal use. Multiple SIM cards may also be used to take advantage of the benefits of different calling plans—a particular plan might provide cheaper local calls, long-distance calls, international calls, or roaming. The mobile phone has also been used in a variety of diverse contexts in society, for example: * A study by Motorola found that one in ten cell phone subscribers have a second phone that often is kept secret from other family members. These phones may be used to engage in activities including extramarital affairs or clandestine business dealings.[38] * Some organizations assist victims of domestic violence by providing mobile phones for use in emergencies.

They are often refurbished phones.[39] * The advent of widespread text messaging has resulted in the cell phone novel; the first literary genre to emerge from the cellular age via text messaging to a website that collects the novels as a whole.[40] * Mobile telephony also facilitates activism and public journalism being explored by Reuters and Yahoo![41] and small independent news companies such as Jasmine New in Sri Lanka. * The United Nations reported that mobile phones have spread faster than any other technology and can improve the livelihood of the poorest people in developing countries by providing access to information in places where landlines or the Internet are not available, especially in the least developed countries. Use of mobile phones also spawns a wealth of micro-enterprises, by providing work, such as selling airtime on the streets and repairing or refurbishing handsets.[42]

* In Mali and other African countries, people used to travel from village to village to let friends and relatives know about weddings, births and other events, which are now avoided within mobile phone coverage areas, which is usually greater than land line penetration. * The TV industry has recently started using mobile phones to drive live TV viewing through mobile apps, advertising, social tv, and mobile TV.[43] 86% of Americans use their mobile phone while watching TV. * In parts of the world, mobile phone sharing is common. It is prevalent in urban India, as families and groups of friends often share one or more mobiles among their members. There are obvious economic benefits, but often familial customs and traditional gender roles play a part.[44] It is common for a village to have access to only one mobile phone, perhaps owned by a teacher or missionary, but available to all members of the village for necessary calls.[45] While driving

Main article: Mobile phones and driving safety

Texting in stop-and-go traffic in New York City

Mobile phone use while driving is common but controversial. Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accident. Because of this, many jurisdictions prohibit the use of mobile phones while driving. Egypt, Israel, Japan, Portugal and Singapore ban both handheld and hands-free use of a mobile phone; others —including the UK, France, and many U.S. states—ban handheld phone use only, allowing hands-free use. Due to the increasing complexity of mobile phones, they are often more like mobile computers in their available uses. This has introduced additional difficulties for law enforcement officials in distinguishing one usage from another as drivers use their devices.

This is more apparent in those countries which ban both handheld and hands-free usage, rather than those who have banned handheld use only, as officials cannot easily tell which function of the mobile phone is being used simply by looking at the driver. This can lead to drivers being stopped for using their device illegally on a phone call when, in fact, they were using the device for a legal purpose such as the phone’s incorporated controls for car stereo or satnav. A recently published study has reviewed the incidence of mobile phone use while cycling and its effects on behaviour and safety.[48] In schools

Some schools limit or restrict the use of mobile phones. Schools have set restrictions because of the use of cell phones for cheating on tests, harassment and bullying, threats to the school’s security, distraction of students, and the facilitating of gossip and other social activity at school. Many mobile phones are banned in school locker room facilities, public restrooms and swimming pools due to the built-in cameras that most phones now feature. Mobile banking and payments

Main articles: Mobile banking and Mobile payment
See also: Branchless banking and Contactless payment

In many countries, mobile phones are used to provide mobile banking services, which may include the ability to transfer cash payments by secure SMS text message. Kenya’s M-PESA mobile banking service, for example, allows customers of the mobile phone operator Safaricom to hold cash balances which are recorded on their SIM cards. Cash may be deposited or withdrawn from M-PESA accounts at Safaricom retail outlets located throughout the country, and may be transferred electronically from person to person as well as used to pay bills to companies. Branchless banking has also been successful in South Africa and Philippines. A pilot project in Bali was launched in 2011 by the International Finance Corporation and an Indonesian bank Bank Mandiri.[49] Another application of mobile banking technology is Zidisha, a US-based nonprofit microlending platform that allows residents of developing countries to raise small business loans from web users worldwide.

Zidisha uses mobile banking for loan disbursements and repayments, transferring funds from lenders in the United States to the borrowers in rural Africa using the internet and mobile phones.[50] Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in 1998 when two Coca-Cola vending machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Eventually, the idea spread and in 1999 the Philippines launched the first commercial mobile payments systems, on the mobile operators Globe and Smart. Some mobile phone can make mobile payments via direct mobile billing schemes or through contactless payments if the phone and point of sale support near field communication (NFC).[51] This requires the co-operation of manufacturers, network operators and retail merchants to enable contactless payments through NFC-equipped mobile phones.[52][53][54] Tracking and privacy

See also: Mobile phone tracking

Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect location data. While the phone is turned on, the geographical location of a mobile phone can be determined easily (whether it is being used or not), using a technique known as multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone. The movements of a mobile phone user can be tracked by their service provider and, if desired, by law enforcement agencies and their government. Both the SIM card and the handset can be tracked.[55] China has proposed using this technology to track commuting patterns of Beijing city residents.[57] In the UK and US, law enforcement and intelligence services use mobiles to perform surveillance. They possess technology to activate the microphones in cell phones remotely in order to listen to conversations that take place near the phone.

[58][59] Thefts

According to the Federal Communications Commission, one out of three robberies involved the theft of a cellular phone. Police data in San Francisco showed that one-half of all robberies in 2012 were thefts of cellular phones. An online petition on Change.org called Secure our Smartphones urged smartphone manuacturers to install kill switches in their devices to make them unusable in case of theft. The petition is part of a joint effort by New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman and San Francisco District Attorney George Gascon and was directed to the CEOs of the major smartphone manufacturers and telecommunication carriers. [60] On Monday, June 10, 2013, Apple announced it would install a kill switch on its next iPhone operating system, due to debut in October 2013. [61] ————————————————-

Health effects
Main article: Mobile phone radiation and health
Further information: Mobile phones on aircraft

The effect mobile phone radiation has on human health is the subject of recent interest and study, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. A large body of research exists, both epidemiological and experimental, innon-human animals and in humans, of which the majority shows no definite causative relationship between exposure to mobile phones and harmful biological effects in humans. This is often paraphrased simply as the balance of evidence showing no harm to humans from mobile phones, although a significant number of individual studies do suggest such a relationship, or are inconclusive.

Other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation. On 31 May 2011, the World Health Organization stated that mobile phone use may possibly represent a long-term health risk,[62][63] classifying mobile phone radiation as “possibly carcinogenic to humans” after a team of scientists reviewed studies on cell phone safety.[64] Mobile phones are in category 2B, which ranks it alongside Coffee and other possibly carcinogenic substances.[65][66] At least some recent studies have found an association between cell phone use and certain kinds of brain and salivary gland tumors. Lennart Hardell and other authors of a 2009 meta-analysis of 11 studies from peer-reviewed journals concluded that cell phone usage for at least ten years “approximately doubles the risk of being diagnosed with a brain tumor on the same (‘ipsilateral’) side of the head as that preferred for cell phone use.”

[67] One study of past cell phone use cited in the report showed a “40% increased risk for gliomas (brain cancer) in the highest category of heavy users (reported average: 30 minutes per day over a 10?year period).”[68] This is a reversal from their prior position that cancer was unlikely to be caused by cellular phones or their base stations and that reviews had found no convincing evidence for other health effects.[63][69] Certain countries, including France, have warned against the use of cell phones especially by minors due to health risk uncertainties.[70] However, a study published 24 March 2012 in the British Medical Journal questioned these estimates, because the increase in brain cancers has not paralleled the increase in mobile phone use. Dis-advantages :

* Some people (especially teens) get so much addicted to cell phones for talking, video, messaging, games, etc that they forget the real purpose of the phone and waste large part of their time in unnecessary interaction over their cell phones. * Nothing more can be a distraction for a teached in the classroom, when a student’s phone rings. Cell phones are increasingly becoming a problem for the schools during classroom hours and are becoming a means of cheating during examinations and other kinds of ability tests. All this is really bad and does hurt the future of the student, who doesn’t realize that he/she is him/her-self responsible for it. * Health of those living in the vicinity of cell phone towers is becoming a growing concern. Towers result into an area with concrete development along with destruction of natural features (vegetation etc) around the place. The towers also emit strong electromagnetic signals, which can be health hazard for those living nearby and who are getting exposed to strong radiations continuously during a good span of their lives.

* While remaining in touch is good thing but sometimes it becomes annoying to have to deal with continuous incoming phone calls. You are on a vacation and your boss calls up, how does that sound! * Cell phone monthly bills are usually more than a landline bill. Sometimes, we may not require to have a cell phone but we still buy one and start paying monthly bills; so it increases our monthly/recurring expenses. * Use of hands-free (wired/blue-tooth) can at times pass on loud sounds to our ears which can result in weakening of ear-drums. Nowadays, one can download lot’s of songs, so keeping the hands-free glued inside your ears for long hours can really affect the sensitivity of ears in the long run of life. * There have been cases of cell phone blasts, due to the excessive heating up of it’s battery. This can be a fatal issue; although rare. * No joke, the surface of a cell phone has millions of bacteria and virus on it and that can be a strong reason of immediate skin problem on face or can result into other internal infections wherein the microbes creep inside the body through mouth or other openings.

* Some use the keypad excessively; due to size restrictions the buttons and keypad of the cell phone are not natural for human hands; so excessive and prolonged typing can be an issue for fingers and finger joints. * The continuous exposure of signal to and from our cell phone can be a cancer concern, although to a meagre amount- research is still going on. However, the mobile phone industry has long resisted any suggestion of a link to cancer, though it accepts that mobile phone radiation does affect the electrical activity in the brain. * The battery parts and other electonic parts of a cell phone can be environmental hazard if not disposed off properly through approved means.

* A cell phone can be helpful while driving and talking in case of urgent matters but increasingly it is becoming cause of accidents because it deviates the attention of a driver; human brain can do only one thing at a time (however small span of time it may be). * It can be a big time distraction and nuisance in calm and silent places like libraries, cinemas, restaruants, etc. Some cell phone users lose the sense of deciding when and where they can talk on the cell phone and where they can’t, without slightest consideration for the fellow beings around. * The mobile phone advertisements through messages are becoming a pain for the cell phone users. * Your SIM can be exploited as tracking device and if you’re an important person then that can be a big concern for you.

Advantages :

* The more you talk, the more you know how to talk and the better your communication skills become. This is applicable if you’re a sensible person and keep note of your interacting habits over the phone. It can be a communication tutorial! * Nothing more than a cell phone comes to great help in emergency. You are driving by the freeway and the vehicle jams and cell phone comes to your rescue. You are stuck in a lone place, again call somebody and ask for directions. * Parents can be a little less worried about their kids by being in constant touch with them. * If you’re a net-savvy, you can have Internet handy all the time and anywhere the signal of your cell phone provider can reach. * Trendy and stylish cell phones can be used as a bait to receive attention. It can be part of fashion and styling.

* From the industy and economy point of view, cell phone companies (communication industry) is flourishing with market capital in billions. This is a good thing for the economy to be smooth and healthy. * Companies find it yet another medium to advertise their products; so another medium to reach the consumers. * Nowadays, cell phones are not just phone calls; they’re about messaging, video, songs, games, alarm clock, notes, calendar, reminder, etc. So one equipment, lots’ of uses! * Although cell phone use can be dangerous while driving but sometimes it can be a time-saver – you are driving and simultaneously discussing some urgent matter as well. A sensible and only urgent usage during driving can be a great help at times.

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